Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Fighting Environmental Injustice Essays

Fighting Environmental Injustice Essays Fighting Environmental Injustice Essay Fighting Environmental Injustice Essay Fighting Environmental Injustice Crystal Rainey SCI 207 Dependence of Man on the Environment Richard Hoagland March 30, 2011 Fighting Environmental Injustice Our envirment has been poorly treated by humans for years. It should be everyones job to help take care of our enviroment. Taking care of our enviroment and trying to make our environment healthier is a big job and is something everyone care partake in, but who fights for enviromental injustice. The Environmental Protection Agency or EPA you could say is the main fighter when it comes to fighting for environmental Injustice but are they doing enough and should they be doing more? I think that the EPA should be doing more for fighting for environmental injustice but being that the EPA is an government agency could their view have become distorted by finantional gain. I will be demastrighting what the epa was done for enviromental injustice but more importanly what they are not doing. In 1990 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Envi- ronmental Equity: Reducing Risks for All Communities, (Easton, T. 2008)a repost that acknowledged the need to pay attention to many of the concerns raised by environmental justice activists. At the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, a set of principles of Environmental Justice was widely dis- cussed. In 1993 the EPA opened an Office of Environmental Equity (now the Office of Environmental Justice) with plans for cleaning up sites in several poor communities. In February 1994 President Bill Clinton made environ- mental justice a national priority with an executive order. Since then, many complaints of environmental discrimination have been filed with the EPA under Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964; and in March 1998 the EPA issued guidelines for investigating those complaints. : However, in April 2001 the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that individuals cannot sue states by charging that federally funded policies unintentionally violate the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 2009 the EPA administered the Recovery act( Recovery Act, 2009) The Recovery Act provides $7. 22 billion for specific programs administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Program-Specific Recovery Act Plans accompany thisdocument and represent the heart of EPA’s contribution to the nation’s economic stimulus. The six Program Plans are: Clean water revolving fund recovery act plan:Investing in construction of water quality protection and wastewater treatment infrastructure. , Drinking water state revoling fund recovery act plan: Ensuring clean drinking water, Brownfields Recovery Act plan : Cleaning up former industrial sites for newcommercial or community use, and training and placing persons in environmental careers. Superfund Recovery Act:Cleaning up uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Clean diesel: Supporting the use, development, and commercialization of strategies to reduce diesel emissions. The EPA may be on to something but its not having an effect on everyone. There are still hazardous waste, unclean water and many many things that are not accomplished. For example we have people to come pick our trash up but no one to pick up our recycable, so why make that extra trip when we can just throw everything in with the trash. This is what I think apart of the EPAs jobs they should make these kind of things more assessable for people. I think this would make people want to contribute more. The Epa also has been on board of the clean air act Prior to 1990, the Clean Air Act required EPA to set standards for each toxic air pollutant individually, (Environmental Protection Agency,2007) based on its particular health risks. This approach proved difficult and minimally effective at reducing emissions. As a result, when amending the Clean Air Act in 1990, Congress directed EPA to use a technology-based and performance-based approach to significantly reduce emissions of air toxics from major sources of air pollution, followed by a risk-based approach to address any remaining, or residual, risks. Under the technology-based approach, EPA develops standards for controlling the routine emissions of air toxics from each major type of facility within an industry group or source category. These standards known as maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards are based on emissions levels that are already being achieved by the better-controlled and lower-emitting sources in an industry. This approach assures citizens nationwide that each major source of toxic air pollution will be required to employ effective measures to limit its emissions. Also, this approach provides a level economic playing field by ensuring that facilities that employ cleaner processes and good emission controls are not disadvantaged relative to competitors with poorer controls. So far sould like the EPA is doing a job but what are some of the problems the EPA is not paying closer acattention to and are these problems effecting our enviroment? A hudge problem is that of monitoring and enforcement of the nations environmental regulations. This could mean many things for example a company is not being monitored for how much toxons that are being put into the air. Restuccia, A. 2011)The Environmental Protection Agency is not doing a good enough job monitoring the potential public health hazards associated with a controversial natural gas drilling process known as hydraulic fracturing, or â€Å"fracking. Fracking in which water, sand and chemicals are injected into the ground to release valuable natural gas deposits – is a major drilling techni que for accessing the country’s massive shale gas reserves. But environmentalists have long raised concerns that the process pollutes drinking water and harms the enviroment. EPA is in the process of conducting a study on the health effects of fracking. But a recent invertigative series by the new york time found that fracking wastewater has been released into waterways withoutbeing teated for radioactive isotopes. The investigation also found that federal scientists concerns about fracking have been removed from key EPA documents on the issue. This is unacceptable, anything that could have a effect on human health needs attention. By the EPA doing this they are not doing their job. These toxions the EPA has resting in their hands even involve the food we eat (Resnik,B. D Portier. C. 2005) . Faced with higafety standards for a variety of chemicals, some pesticide companies decided to conduct experiments on human subjects to produce data that they hoped would convince the U. S. EPA to lower the interspecies safety factor. From 1996 to 2004, the U. S. EPA received 20 studies from private companies providing human dosing data on pesticide toxicity. However, a Law that was intended to provide additional safety protection for children had the unintended effect of encouraging some companies to test toxic compounds on human beings to avoid the regulatory impact of the law. So not only were these people testing on other humans they were putting toxions in the air. There are many strategies we are now using to help with minimizing toxic effects (Cunningham Cunningham, 2008) A fundamental concept in toxicology is that every material can be poisonous under some conditions, but most chemicals have a safe level or threshold below which their effects are undetectable or insignificant. Each of us consumes lethal doses of many chemicals. over the course of a lifetime. One hundred cups of strong coffee, for instance, contain a lethal dose of caffeine. Similarly, 100 aspi- rin tablets, 10 kg (22 lbs) of spinach or rhubarb, or a liter of alco- hol would be deadly if consumed all at once. Taken in small doses, however, most toxins can be broken down or excreted before they do much harm. Furthermore, the damage they cause can be repaired. Sometimes, however, mechanisms that protect us from one type of toxin or at one stage in the life cycle become deleteri- ous with another substance or in another stage of development. Let’s look at how these processes help protect us from harmful substances, as well as how they can go awry. With most things there is going to be a reaction. Most things put off some type of toxon. Being that most of them are at a human level of saftey does not mean we should be careless. While the EPA seems to be doing their job, seems that they are missing some big issues that need to be address. I still think that taking care of our enviroment is a big job and it should be everyones job. I think that the job of the EPA is to try to stay on top of making sure that if people are not doing things they should not be doing when it comes to our enviroment they should be punished. People that do not go by the guidelines for the EPA should be punished and not just a slap on the hand. This is not a game everytime these companies produce more toxions then they should or dump waste into waters. It is not just effecting one person. This type of behavior effects everyone but it still seems whenever money is involved anything goes. This could be how people are getting away with doing these acts and nothing is being done. We have to face that when money in envolved many things get passed and this very well could be happening because a lot of these companies could be making millions even billions. It would be nothing for the EPA to get paid off to keep out of EPA reports. Its really a shame that money has become even more important then protecting the enviroment. Resources Easton, T. (2008) Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial envirmental issues. (Custon 13th(. New York: McGraw-Hill Environmental Protection Agency(2007) Taken Toxics out of the air. http://epa. gov/air/oaqps/takingtoxics/p1. html Restuccia, A. (2011) EPA not doing good enough job monitoring. http://thehill. com/blogs/e2-wire/677-e2-wire/147701-house-democrat-epa-not-doing-a-good-enough-job-monitoring-fracking Resnik,B. D. Portier. C. (2005) Pesticides Testing on Human subjects. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257640/ Cunningham, W. P. , Cunningham, M. A. (2009). Questions for baloney detection. In Principles of enviromental science.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

After anne frank Essay Example For Students

After anne frank Essay After anne frank Essays diary, It continues onward to grim results. During their hiding in the secret annexe, a Dutch informer hinted to the Gestapo (German Police) that the frank family was in hiding. On August 4, 1944, the Frank family was discovered and sent Gestapo Headquarters in Amsterdam. The Franks, Van Daans and Mr. Dussel were sent to Westorbork in Holland. On September 3, the Allies captured Brussels and the Franks Along with the Van Daans were the last ones to be sent on a freight train with seventy-five people per car. Each car was sealed tight with only one window. For three days and nights the train ventured across Germany to reach its final destination, Auschwitz in Poland. There the Franks and the Van Daans were then sent to concentration camps. There the conditions were horrible. Healthier prisoners shaved their heads and worked twelve hours a day digging sod controlled by the merciless Kapos, Criminals who served the SS as labor overseers. In October 1944, Anne, Margot and Mrs. Van Daan were among a group were sent to Belsen in Germany. Mrs. Frank died in the infirmary back at Auschwitz. Otto Frank survived to be liberated by the Russians. Margot died February or March of 1945. Anne died soon after. This tells you the reason why the Franks went into hiding that long while and why hiding from everybody, your friends, your family was the sacrifice you had to take to stay out of these death camps. .

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Research for organic textile Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Research for organic textile - Essay Example Other buyers opt for organic textile products for their children’s allergies or their sensitive skins. For this reason very few companies deal in organic textiles, most of them importing organic raw material and processing them in China or Japan while others importing end-use products from U.S.A. or the European Union (Joca, 2001). Being that Japanese consumers like reliable certification, most organic textile products sold within the country come from the U.S.A who’s certification standards on products is known to be quite stringent.. While Japan consumes over 800,000 tons of cotton products yearly, only between 300 to 350 tons are of organic cotton material. Most organic textiles are sold in cooperative stores, department stores, specialty stores and natural food stores. Most supermarkets do not sell organic textiles and most businesses deem catalogue, mail-order and online business favorable for organic textile products in the country. Currently, the market for organic textiles in the country is growing gradually with their prices closely matching those of high level branded clothes sold in department stores. The high prices are more as a result of small-scale production and high cost of raw US cotton. Most organic textile products sold in Japan are uncolored and unbleached with a gradually growing need for new styles, blends, printed or dyed products. In order to establish a business in Japan, a minimum of one yen is required but under certain conditions; within five years the business must have a minimum capital of between three and ten million yen depending on the type of business (Jref Inc., 2009). A minimum registration fee of 181 yen is also charged for startup businesses; these cover a whole range of licenses and permit fess. According to the Organic Exchange and Organic trade association, apparel account for about 85% of retail organic products in Los Angeles (Singleton, 1997). The home textile

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Toyota International Corporation Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Toyota International Corporation - Research Paper Example The reason behind their success is the deployment of strategic planning throughout the years since 1937. They focus on a more efficient human resource by understanding the individuals who possess several unique capabilities. Toyota is head quartered in Japan and operates 75 manufacturing companies in 28 countries around the world (Toyota in the world, 2010). Toyota has set up its market in more than 170 countries with a 320,000-strong workforce. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda by renovating his father automobile manufacturing company Toyota Industries. The company operates its business at its full swing starting from Japan and throughout North America, The Caribbean, Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. The annual report of the company shows that even though there is a slight decrease in the production, the company will manage to survive the declining economy with the expected sales turnover. 2. Types of market and legal systems Toyota formulates marketing str ategies based on the social, environmental, and economical conditions of each region where the company operates its business. The legal system of the particular country or region is also taken into consideration before implementing marketing policies in the specific country. In 2004, as Gale (n.d.) points out, Toyota in Europe was in a quandary as new environmental friendly vehicles were in high demand when the administration implemented environmental regulations; it was necessary to train the staff with the new technologies of the advanced vehicles. The company integrated the three important elements – marketing, sales, and manufacturing to overcome the problem in Europe. The marketing strategies in China and US were seen successful in 2005 when profits rose up against the worldwide automobile industry trends. When entering into the market of another country, almost all companies are faced with the financial risk of exchange rate variances due to interference of the legal an d political systems. The legal proceeding of the foreign markets must be clearly analyzed before investing in that market. Toyota is noted well for its management in the international markets. The company procured a considerable market in the United States by initially bringing inexpensive vehicles. Later on, it widened the markets and expanded its share in the U.S. automobile market. To overcome the market issue of dollar exchange rates, Toyota introduced manufacturing facilities in the United States. 3. Political Risk One of the major political risks that the Toyota motors faced was the backlash against American corporations. It imposes increased parameters on different production levels and on nationalization of its products. This change can influence the operations of the company. The political changes can positively and negatively affect the firm. By the end of 2006, Toyota manufactured 1.5 million cars in North America, but had to import an additional 1.2 million cars (Toyota) . While being costly, the high reliance on imports poses political risks in the United States. Managing political risk in the international market is not an easy task. While the political changes contribute direct risks to the firm, the politics also constitutes other external risks. In order to overcome these kinds of possible political risks, Toyota can set up strong relations with various trade organizations. At the same time, the political consultant must make sure that the firm builds up a strong relationship with the governments also. In

Friday, January 24, 2020

Free Essay: Tim OBriens Things They Carried :: Things They Carried Essays

The Things They Carried Vietnam War was one of the hardest wars ever fought. There are several reasons for this statement. It was basically impossible to conquer the territory because there were no boundaries. The soldiers had to put up with the climate, land, diseases and most importantly themselves. This essay is about yet another reason: the relationship between the soldiers and the officers. It is very reasonable to say that American soldiers entering the Vietnam were not disciplined enough. The average age of a soldier in Vietnam was eighteen. Nobody found it necessary to train these kids to handle all the problems they run into. The service ruined their late childhood and they had to grow up early! If anything went wrong, they would simply blame the officer in charge. Tim O'Brien illustrated this nicely in his story In The Field. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross felt guilty for Kiowa's death. He blamed himself for not thinking about his troops even though he did what he was supposed to do. Couple of soldiers were pissed off about Kiowa's death. They blamed it all on Lieutenant even though they knew it was not his fault. Then they let their emotions out and the situation turned to be out of control. O'Brien describes it syntactically. He is trying to persuade us that all the soldiers knew Jimmy was not guilty, but some soldiers just had to blam e it on somebody. " 'Some lieutenant,' Sanders said. 'Camps us in a toilet. Man don't know shit.' 'Nobody knew,' Bowker said. 'Maybe so, maybe not. Ten billion places we could've set up last night, the man picks a latrine.' ...'It wasn't the LT's fault,' Bowker said quietly. 'Whose then?' 'Nobody's. Nobody knew till afterward.' " (180). This entire incident was by far the toughest on Jimmy Cross. He had to deal with himself and his corrupt soldiers. He was emotionally shook up with Kiowa's death and he did not appreciate Mitchell's reaction. Accidents like this one lead to a distant relationship between the officer and the soldiers. Soldiers usually protest and officers have to punish them. This of course leads to more violence and some of the outcomes can be deadly.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Philippine Psychology Act of 2009 Essay

STATEMENT OF POLICY Section 2. Statement of Policy. – The State recognizes that psychologists have an important role in nation-building and development. It also acknowledges the diverse specializations of psychologists and the diverse functions specific to the varied specializations. It particular, it recognizes the significance of the psychological services that practicing psychologists provide to diverse types of clients, but also recognizes the need to protect the public by preventing inexperienced or untrained individuals from offering psychological services. Hence, it shall nurture competent, upright and assiduous psychologists whose standards of practice and service shall be excellent and globally competitive through the administration of inviolable, effective and credible licensure examinations and the imposition and promotion of regulatory measures, programs and activities that enhance their professional growth and well-being. ARTICLE III DEFINITION OF TERMS Section 3. Definition of Terms. – As used in this Act, the following terms shall have the following meanings: (a) â€Å"Psychology† is the scientific study of human behavior. It involves the application of scientific methods to inquire into the biological, cognitive, affective, developmental, personality, social, cultural and individual difference dimensions of human behavior. (b) â€Å"Practice of Psychology† consists of the delivery of psychological services that involve application of psychological principles and procedures for the purpose of describing, understanding, predicting and influencing the behavior of individuals or groups, in order to assist in the attainment of optimal human growth and functioning. The delivery of psychological services includes, but is not limited to: (1) psychological interventions: psychological counseling, psychotherapy, psychosocial support, coaching, psychological debriefing, group processes and all other psychological interventions that involve the application of psychological principles to improve psychological functioning of individuals, families, groups and organizations; (2) psychological assessment: gathering and integration of psychology-related data for the purpose of making a psychological evaluation, accomplished through a variety of tools, including individual tests, projective tests, clinical interview and other psychological assessment tools, for the purpose of assessing diverse psychological functions including cognitive abilities, aptitudes, personality characteristics, attitudes, values, interests, emotions and motivations, among others, in support of psychological counseling, psychotherapy and other psychological interventions; and (3) psychological programs: development, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of psychological treatment for individuals and/or groups. (c) â€Å"Psychologist† means a natural person who is duly registered and holds a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional identification card as professional psychologist, issued by the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology and the Professional Regulation Commission pursuant to this Act for the purpose of delivering the different psychological services defined in this Act. (d) â€Å"Psychometrician† means a natural person who holds a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional identification card as psychometrician issued by the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology and the Professional Regulation Commission pursuant to this Act. As such, he/she shall be authorized to do any of the following: Provided, That such shall at all times be conducted under the supervision of a licensed professional psychologist: (1) administering and scoring of objective personality tests, structured personality tests, excluding projective tests and other higher level forms of psychological tests; (2) interpreting results of the same and preparing a written report on these results; and (3) conducting preparatory intake interviews of clients for psychological invention sessions. ARTICLE IV PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF PSYCHOLOGY Section 4. Creation and Composition of the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology. – There is hereby created a Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology, hereinafter called the Board, a collegial body under the administrative control and supervision of the Professional Regulation Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, which shall be composed of a Chairperson and two (2) members appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list of three (3) nominees for each position. The list of nominees shall be submitted to the Commission by the integrated and accredited national organization of psychologists. The Board shall be organized not later than sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. Section 5. Qualification of the Chairperson and the Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology. – The Chairperson and members of the Board shall, at the time of their appointment and for the course of their term, possess the following quali fications: (a) A natural born citizen and resident of the Philippines; (b) At least thirty-five (35) years of age; (c) Possess good moral character; (d) Hold a doctorate degree in psychology conferred by a university, college or school in the Philippines or board duly recognized and/or accredited by   the Commission on Higher Education (CHED); (e) Have at least ten (10) years of practice in psychology and psychometrics in a duly recognized institution, clinic or center, as well as at least (5) years of teaching experience in the field of psychology; (f) Be a registered and licensed psychologists, except in the case of the first members of the Board who shall automatically be conferred a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional identification card in psychology and psychometrics upon appointment to the Board; (g) Is neither an officer, trustee nor member of the faculty of any university, college, institute or school where a regular course in psychology is offered or taught or review classes conducted and shall not have any pecuniary interest, direct or indirect, in any such institution; (h) Is not an officer, nor hold any position other than being a member of the integrated and accredited national organization of psychologists; and (i) Shall not have been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude. Section 6. Term of Office. – The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years or until their successors shall have been appointed and duly qualified. Each member of the Board may be reappointed for one (1) full term of three (3) years. The first members of the Board shall hold office for the following terms: the Chairperson for three (3) years; one (10 member for two (2) years; and the other member for one (1) year, which shall be specified in their respective appointments. Any vacancy occurring within the term of a member shall be filled for the unexpired portion of the term only. Each member of the Board shall qualify by taking the proper oath prior to the performance of his/her duties. Section 7. Powers and Duties. – The Board shall have the following powers and duties: (a) Administer and implement the provisions of this Act and promulgate as well as revise or update, as necessary, rules and regulations, resolutions and guidelines hereto: Provided, That the policies, resolutions, rules and regulations issued or promulgated by the Board shall be subject to review and approval of the Commission; (b) Supervise and monitor the registration, licensure and practice of psychologists and Psychometricians in the Philippines; (c) Administer oaths in connection with the administration of this Act; (d) Issue, and upon compliance with due process requirements, suspend or revoke, and/or reinstate, the certificate of registration and professional identification card for psychologists and psychometricians; (e) Adopt an official seal of the Board; (f) Monitor the conditions and circumstances affecting the practice of psychology and psychometrics in the Philippines and adopt such measures as may be deemed lawful and proper for the enhancement and maintenance of high professional, ethical and technical standards of the profession; (g) Issue permits to and exercise visitorial powers over agencies, institutions, associations and partnerships to verify that the persons practicing psychology and psychometrics therein are psychologists and psychometricians with valid certificates of registration and valid professional identification cards, and that they possess the necessary accreditation, skills and/or facilities to competently carry out their functions; (h) Assist the Commission in the formulation and implementation of the guidelines on continuing professional education for psychologists and psychometricians; (i) Ensure, in coordination with the CHED, that all educational institutions offering the course/program of psychology stric tly comply with the policies, standards and requirements prescribed by the CHED for such course/program, especially in the areas of administration, curriculum, faculty, library and facilities; (j) Prepare, adopt, issue and amend, in consultation with the CHED, syllabi for the licensure examination subjects; (k) Investigate and, when warranted, her administrative cases involving violations of this Act, its implementing rules and regulations as hereinafter promulgated, and any applicable code of ethics and/or code of professional standards. For this purpose, it may issue subpoena testificandum and subpoena duces tecum to secure the appearances of witnesses and the production of documents in connection therewith:Provided, That the Board’s decision, resolution or orders rendered in administrative cases shall be subject to review only on appeal; and (l) Perform such other functions and duties as may be lawfully delegated to it, or as it may deem necessary to carry out the objectives of this Act. Section 8. Compensation and Allowances. – The Chairperson and members of the Board shall receive the same compensation and allowances as those received by the Chairperson and members of the existing regulatory boards under the Commission, as provided in the charter of the Commission and in the General Appropriations Act. Section 9. Removal or Suspension of Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology. – Any member of the Board may, upon the recommendation of the Commission, upon observance of due process and completion of the proper investigation, be suspended or removed by the President from office for cause, such as gross neglect of duty, incompetence, malpractice, behavior unbecoming of a psychology professional, immorality, unethical or dishonorable conduct, final conviction of any crime involving moral turpitude, any act of grant and corruption, and participation in the manipulation of or any dishonesty relative to the licensure examinations and/or th e registration process. Section 10. Administrative Supervision over the Board, Custodian of its Records, Secretariat and Support Services. – The Board shall be under the administrative supervision and control of the Commission. All records of the Board, including documents relative to the licensure examinations as well as administrative and other investigative cases conducted by the Board, shall be kept in the custody of the Commission. The Commission shall designate the Secretary of the Board and shall provide the secretariat with necessary support services to effectivity implement the provisions of this Act. ARTICLE V LICENSURE EXAMINATIONS Section 11. Examinations Required. – All applicants for registration to practice psychology and psychometrics shall be required to pass a licensure examination for psychologists and psychometricians to be conducted by the Board in such places and dates, and subject to such requirements prescribed by the Commission. Section 12. Qualifications of Applicants for the Licensure Examination for Psychologists. – Any person may apply to take examination for registration and licensure as a psychologist after furnishing evidence satisfactory to the Board that the applicant: (a) Is a Filipino citizen, a permanent resident or a citizen of a foreign state/country which extends reciprocity to the Philippines relative to the practice of the profession; (b) Holds at least a master’s degree in psychology conferred by a university, college or school in the Philippines or abroad recognized/accredited by the CHED and has obtained sufficient credits for the subjects covered in the examinations; (c) Has undergone a minimum of two hundred (200) hours of supervised practicum/internship/clinical experience related to services enumerated in paragraph (b) of Section 3 of this Act and under the auspices of a licensed psychologist or other licensed mental health professional; (d) Is of good moral character; and (e) Has not been convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude. Section 13. Qualifications of Applicants for the Licensure Examination for Psychometricians. – Any person may apply to take the examination for registration and licensure as a psychometrician by furnishing evidence satisfactory to the Board that the applicant: (a) Is a Filipino citizen, a permanent resident or a citizen of a foreign state/country which extends reciprocity to the Philippines relative to the practice of the profession; (b) Holds at least a bachelor’s degree in psychology conferred by a university, college or school in the Philippines or abroad recognized/accredited by the CHED and has obtained sufficient credits for the subjects covered in the examinations; (c) Is of good moral character; and (d) Has not been convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude. Section 14. Examination Subjects for Psychologists. – The licensure examination for psychologists shall cover the following subjects: (a) Advanced Theories of Personality; (b) Advanced Abnormal Psychology; (c) Advanced Psychological Assessment; and (d) Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy. Section 15. Examination Subjects for Psychometricians. – The licensure examinations for psychometricians shall cover the following subjects: (a) Theories of Personality; (b) Abnormal Psychology; (c) Industrial Psychology; and (d) Psychological Assessment. The Board may recluster, rearrange, modify, add or exclude and prescribed subjects for psychologists and psychometricians as the need arises. Section 16. Registration Without Examination for Psychologists. – A person who possesses the qualifications required to take the examination for registration as a psychologist pursuant to the provisions of this Act may be registered without examination: Provided, That the applicant files with the Board within three (3) years after its creation an application for registration and issuance of certificate of registration and professional identification card by submitting credentials satisfactory to the Board that the applicant had, on or prior to the effectivity of this Act, fulfilled the requirements under either subparagraphs (a), (b) or (c) herein: (a) Obtained a doctoral degree in psychology and had accumulated three (3) years of work experience in the practice of psychology; (b) Obtained a master’s degree in psychology and accum ulated a minimum of five (5) years of work experience in the practice of psychology; (c) Psychologists or employees who hold positions as psychologists presently employed in various government or private agencies, who have a bachelor’s degree in psychology, accumulated a minimum of ten (10) years of work experience in the practice of psychology as a psychologist, and who have updated their professional education in various psychology-related functions. Section 17. Registration Without Examination for Psychometricians. – A person who possesses the qualifications required to take the examination for registration as a psychometrician may be registered without examination:Provided, That the applicant files with the Board within three (3) years after its creation an application for registration and issuance of a certificate of registration and professional identification card by submitting credentials satisfactory to the Board that the applicant before the effectivity of this Act had obtained a bachelor’s degree in psychology and had accumulated a min imum of two (2) years full time work experience in the practice of psychometrics. Section 18. Ratings in the Examination. – To be qualified as having passed the licensure examination for psychologists and psychometricians, a candidate must have obtained a weighted general average of at least seventy-five percent (75%) for all subjects, with no grade lower than sixty percent (60%) in any given subject. An examine who obtains a weighted general average of seventy-five percent (75%) or higher but obtains a rating below sixty percent (60%) in any given subject may retake such subjects within the next two (2) years, and upon obtaining a rating of at least seventy-five percent (75%) in each such subject, shall then be deemed to have passed the licensure examination. Section 19. Report of Ratings. – The Board shall submit to the Commission an official report detailing the ratings obtained by each examine within ten (10) calendar days after the examination, unless such period is extended for just cause. ARTICLE VI REGISTRATION Section 20. Oath of Psychologists and Psychometricians. – All successful examines qualified for registration and all qualified applicants for registration without examination shall be required to take an oath to uphold the profession before any member of the Board or any officer of the Commission authorized to administer oaths, prior to entering into the practice of psychology or psychometrics in the Philippines. Section 21. Issuance of Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification Card. – A certificate of registration and professional identification card shall be issued to all successful examines and registrants without examination upon compliance with all the legal requirements, including payment of fees, prescribed by the Commission. The certificate of registration shall bear the signature of the Chairperson of the Commission and members of the Board, indicating that the person named therein is entitled to practice the profession with all the privileges and concomitant responsibilities appurtenant thereto. The said certificate shall remain in full force and effect until suspended in accordance with this Act. A professional identification card bearing the registration number, date of issuance and validity term of three (3) years, duly signed by the Chairperson of the Commission, shall likewise be issued to every registrant who has paid the prescribed registration fee. Upon expiration of the professional identification card, the psychologist and psychometrician may renew the same upon proof of compliance with continuing education requirements prescribed by the Board and/or the Commission. Section 22. Disclosure of Registration Information. – The psychologist or psychomitrician shall be required to indicate his/her registration and professional identification card number and date of issuance, the duration of validity, including the professional tax receipt number on each document signed, used or issued in connection with the practice of his/her profession. Section 23. Non-issuance of Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification Card. – The Board shall not register nor issue a certificate of registration or professional identification card to any person convicted of a criminal offense involving moral turpitude, has been found guilty by a judicial or other duly constituted tribunal of immoral or dishonorable conduct, or has been medically diagnosed to be of unsound mind. In the event of non-issuance of the certificate for any reason, the Board shall furnish the applicant a written statement setting forth the reasons for such denial, which statement shall be incorporated to the records of the Board. Section 24. Foreign Reciprocity. – No foreigner shall be admitted to the psychology or psychometrics licensure examinations unless he/she proves that the country of which he/she is a citizen either: (a) Admits Filipino citizens to the practice of psychology or psychometrics without need for registration and issuance of a certificate of registration/professional identification card; (b) Allows Filipino citizens to practice psychology or psychometrics without restriction; or (c) Allows Filipino citizens to practice the same after an examination on terms of strict and absolute equality with nationals of said country. Section 25. Practice through Special/Temporary Permit. – Special/temporary permits may be issued by the Board, subject to the approval by the Commission and payment of appropriate fees, to the following persons: (a) Licensed psychologists or psychometricians from foreign countries/states who are internationally acknowledged specialists or outstanding experts in psychology or psychometrics: Provided, That their services are important and necessary either due to the lack or inadequacy of available local specialists or experts or in recognition of their potential contribution to the promotion and advancement of the practice of psychology of psychometrics through transfer of technology; (b) Licensed psychologists or psychometricians from foreign countries/states whose services shall be free and offered exclusively to indigent patients in a particular hospital, center or clinic; and (c) Licensed psychologists or psychometricians from foreign countries/states employed as exchange professors to teach psychology or psychometrics in school s, colleges, universities offering psychology or psychometrics courses or programs. The permit shall detail the conditions thereof which shall, among other things, include the effectivity period of not more than one (1) year subject to renewal and the specific place of practice such as the clinic, hospital, center, school, college, university offering the course of psychology or psychometrics. The Board, subject to the approval by the Commission, shall prescribed rules and regulations on the implementation of this particular section. Section 26. Suspension or Revocation of Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification Card or Cancellation of a Special/Temporary Permit. – The Board shall have the power, after notice and hearing, to suspend or revoke the certificate of registration and professional identification card or to cancel special/temporary permits granted pursuant to this Act on any ground set forth in Section 33 of this Act or any of the instances hereunder: (a) Procurement of a certificate of registration and/or professional identificat ion card or special/temporary permit by fraud or deceit; (b) Allowing an unqualified person to advertise or to practice the profession by using one’s certificate of registration or professional identification card or special/temporary permit; (c) Violating or conspiring to violate any of the provisions of this Act, its implementing rules and regulations, the code of ethics or code of professional standards promulgated hereinafter by the Board; (d) Manifest physical or mental incompetence to render psychological services with reasonable skill and safety to his/her clients/patients; (e) Professional misconduct or negligence in the performance of duties as a psychometrician; and (f) Engaging in the practice of the profession during the period of one’s suspension. Section 27. Reinstatement. – A psychologist or psychometrician whose certificate of registration has been revoked may apply to the Board for reinstatement at any time after two (2) years from the date of revocation of said certificate. The application shall be in writing and shall conform to requirements hereinafter prescribed by the Board. No certificate of registration or professional identification card or special/temporary permit shall be reinstated unless the Board is satisfied that a good cause exists to warrant such reinstatement. Issuance of a new certificate of registration or professional identification card or special/temporary permit in lieu of one that has been lost, destroyed or mutilated shall be subject to applicable rules prescribed by the Commission. Section 28. Appeal from Judgement. – The decision of the Board shall ipso facto become final fifteen (15) days from receipt of the decision by the respondent unless an appeal has been filed with the Commission within the same period. The Commission’s decision on appeal may be further appealed before the Court Appeals within fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof. Section 29. Rights of the Respondent. – The respondent psychologist or psychometrician shall have the right to be represented by counsel at all stages of the proceedings as well as to speedy disposition of his/her case. He/She shall have the right to confront witnesses against him/her in addition to such other rights guaranteed by the Constitution. ARTICLE VII PRIVILEDGED COMMUNICATION AND PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION Section 30. Rights to Privilege Communication for Psychologists and Psychometricians. – A psychologists or psychometrician cannot, without the consent of the client/patient, be examined on any communication or information disclosed and/or acquired in the course of giving psychological services to such client. The protection accorded herein shall extend to all pertinent records and shall be available to the secretary, clerk or other staff of the licensed psychologist or psychometrician. Any evidence obtained in violation of this provision shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. Section 31. Integration of the Profession. – The profession shall hereinafter be integrated by consolidating all practitioners into one (1) national organization of registered and licensed psychologists and psychometricians, which shall be recognized and accredited by the Board, subject to approval of the Commission. A psychologist or psychometrician duly registered and licensed by the Board and the Commission shall automatically become a member of said organization and shall receive the benefits and privileges, as well as be subject to all responsibilities and obligations, appurtenant thereto upon payment of the required fees and dues. Membership in the integrated organization shall not be a bar to membership in any other association of psychologists and/or psychometricians.1avvphi1 Section 32. Code of Ethics and Code of Practice for Psychologists and Psychometricians. – The Board shall adopt and promulgated the Code of Ethics and Code of Practice for Psychometricians prescribed and issued by the accredited pro fessional organization of psychologists. ARTICLE VIII PROHIBITED ACTS, PENALTIES AND ENFORCEMENT OF THIS ACT Section 33. Prohibited Acts. – (a) No person shall: (1) Engage in the professional practice of psychology or psychometrics nor represent himself/herself as a professional practicing psychologist or psychometrician without a valid certificate of registration or valid professional identification card, or a valid special/temporary permit granted by the Board pursuant to this Act; (2) Represent himself/herself to be a licensed and authorized practicing psychologist or psychometrician during the time that his/her certificate of registration has been suspended or revoked or professional identification card without being renewed, or special/temporary permit cancelled; (3) Allow any other person to use his/her certificate of registration and professional identification card or special/temporary permit for any purpose, regardless of whether such enables the unqualified individual to engage in the practice of psychology or psychometrics; (4) Use, exhibit and/or misrepresent as his/her own the certificate of registration and/or professional iden tification card or special/temporary permit of another; and (5) Give any false, inaccurate, misleading or incomplete information to the Board on order to obtain a certificate of registration or professional identification card or special/temporary permit. (b) No corporation, partnership, association or entity shall operate a psychology or psychometrics office, center, clinic or otherwise engage in the practice or allow the practice of psychology or psychometrics within its premises without securing a permit therefor from the Board. Such permit shall be issued only after the Board is satisfied that such establishment is competently staffed by a psychologist and equipped with sufficient and adequate psychology-related instruments and facilities. (c)A violation of any provision of this Act or of its implementing rules and regulations shall be penalized accordingly. Section 34. Penalties. – Any person who violates any provision of this Act implementing rules and regulations shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than six (6) months but not more than three (3) years, or a fine of not less than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) but not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00), or both, at the discretion of the court. Section 35. Injunction. – The Board may initiate action to enjoin, restrain, and/or prosecute any individual, corporation, association, partnership or entity engaging in the practice of psychology and psychometrics in violation of this Act. Section 36. Enforcement. – It shall be the duty of all duly constituted law enforcement agencies and officers of national, provincial, city or municipal governments to uphold and enforce the provisions of this Act and to investigate and prosecute or cause the investigation and prosecution of any person violating the same. ARTICLE IX MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Section 37. Funding Provision. – The Chairperson of the Commission shall immediately hereinafter include in the Commission’s programs the prompt implementation of this Act, funding of which shall be provided for in the annual General Appropriations Act. Section 38. Implementing Rules and Regulations. – Within ninety (90) days after the constitution of the Board, it shall promulgated the necessary implementing rules and regulations, subject to approval of the Commission, to implement the provisions of this Act. Section 39. Separability Clause. – If any provision of this Act shall at any time be found to be unconstitutional or invalid, the remainder thereof not affected by such declaration shall remain in full force and effect. Section 40. Repealing Clause. – All laws, decrees, rules or regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. Section 41. Effectivity. – This Act shall take effect afte r fifteen (15) days following its complete publication in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. Approved, (Sgd.) PROSPERO C. NOGRALES Speaker of the House of Representatives| (Sgd.) JUAN PONCE ENRILE President of the Senate| This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 3498 and House Bill No. 6512 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on December 14, 2009 and December 16, 2009, respectively. (Sgd.) MARILYN B. BARUA-YAP Secretary General House of Represenatives| (Sgd.) EMMA LIRIO-REYES Secretary of Senate| Approved: March 16, 2010 (Sgd.) GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines The Lawphil Project – Arellano Law Foundation Online Application for Registration Without Examination This facility is for the exclusive use of applicants for registration without examination and is available up to: * May 21, 2015 – for Psychologists and Psychometricians * May 21, 2014 – for Respiratory Therapists Please read carefully the entire instructions and information provided below so you will be guided properly on the procedures, requirements and timetables for registration without examination. 1. Before submitting an application for registration without examination, the applicant must: a. Decide what the application for registration without examination is for (whether for Psychologist or Psychometrician or both, or for Respiratory Therapist). Separate forms and payment will be required for each application. b. Determine whether applicant satisfies the qualification standards for Psychologist, Psychometrician, or Respiratory Therapist c. Determine if applicant can satisfy all the documentary requirements within 15 days from the time of online application. The documentary requirements for Psychologist, Psychometrician, or Respiratory Therapist are provided hereunder: For Psychologist 1. Original and Photocopy of Certificate of Live Birth in NSO Security Paper for Filipino citizens. In case of a foreign citizen, a copy of the law of the state or country which permits Filipino Psychologists to practice on the same basis as its subject or citizens, duly authenticated by the Philippine embassy or consulate therein. 2. Original and photocopy of Marriage Certificate in NSO security paper (for married female only) 3. Original and photocopy of Transcript of Records with scanned picture and with the Special Order Number indicated (for both undergraduate and graduate degrees). Where school is exempted from the issuance of an SO, a certificate of authentication and validation (CAV) must be secured from CHED. 4. For those who do not have a master’s degree, a certified true copy of of at least 100 hours of updating seminars and workshops attended from June 2005 to June 2010 must be presented/submitted 5. Original Certificates of Practice/Work Experience(s): a. Certificate of Employment from immediate superior duly noted by either the HR Manager or Employer specifying the position title, nature of work and specific period of employment duly sworn in by the issuing authorities. Official Job Description signed by the HR Manager must be attached, and for government employees, the official service record specifying the position item must also be submitted. b. For those who are self-employed, applicant must submit the following: 1. Certificate of private practice from colleagues, professional partners and/or institutional clients, specifying the nature of work/services rendered and the duration thereof, duly sworn in and notarized under oath 2. Work contract(s), if any, and/or sworn in statement of the practitioner specifying the nature, scope and duration of project engagement or services rendered, and the regularity of service-delivery with the undertaking that documentary evidence wi ll be produced when required by the Board 3. Business permit and DTI registration 6. Three (3) Original Certificates of Good Moral Character from any of the following: school, employer, church, and/or Barangay Captain duly signed by issuing authority and notarized under oath 7. Original Certificate of Mental Health or Mental Fitness from a Psychiatrist or from a Registered/Certified Clinical Psychologist, duly signed and notarized under oath 8. Original and photocopy of valid NBI Clearance plus Ombudsman clearance for government employees 9. Two (2) colored passport-size picture with white background and complete name tag 10. Photocopy of Community Tax Certificate For Psychometrician 11. Original and Photocopy of Certificate of Live Birth in NSO security paper for Filipino citizens. In case of a foreign citizen, a copy of the law of the state or country which permits Filipino Psychometricians to practice on the same basis as its subject or citizens, duly authenticated by the Philippine embassy or consulate therein. 12. Original and photocopy of Marriage Certificate in NSO security paper (for married female only) 13. Original and photocopy of Transcript of Records for Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology (AB/BS) with scanned picture. Special Order Number must be indicated. Where school is exempted from the issuance of an SO, a certificate of authentication and validation (CAV) must be secured from CHED. 14. Original certificate of full-time work experience as a Psychometrician or full time work engagement in the practice of psychometrics for a minimum of 2 years, either from immediate superior (if employed) or from institutional clients, professional partners/colleagues (if on private practice), specifying the nature of work, duly sworn in and notarized under oath. Official job description must be attached. 15. Original and photocopy of valid NBI Clearance; plus Clearance from the Ombudsman for those in government service. 16. Three (3) original Certificates of Good Moral Character, from any of the following: school/former professor, employer, church, and/or Barangay Captain duly signed by issuing authority and notarized under oath 17. Two (2) colored passport-size pictures with white background and complete name tag 18. Photocopy of Community Tax Certificate For Respiratory Therapist 19. Original and photocopy of Certificate of Live Birth in NSO security paper 20. Original and photocopy of Marriage Certificate in NSO security paper (for married female only) 21. Original and photocopy of Transcript of Records (with scanned picture) indicating the Special Order (SO) number, and where the school is exempted from the issuance of an SO, a Certificate of Authentication and Validation (CAV) from the CHED 22. Original and photocopy of NBI Clearance 23. Original Ombudsman Clearance (for government employee) 24. Three (3) Certificates of Good Moral Character, preferably from school, employer, church or barangay captain, duly signed by the issuing authority and duly notarized under oath 25. Two (2) colored passport-size pictures with white background and complete name tag 26. Community Tax Certificate 27. Certificate of Employment, Service Record and Job Description: For academic practitioners: c. Certificate of Employment and Service Record duly signed under oath and sealed by the Human Resources Department d. Certification of subjects taught in the last ten (10) years duly signed under oath and sealed by the Dean of the college, or his/her equivalent, and the school’s Registrar For clinical practitioners: e. Certificate of Employment and Service Record duly signed under oath and sealed by the Human Resources Department and Medical Director f. Copy of the Job Description duly signed under oath and sealed by the Human Resources Department For home care clinical practitioners: g. Certificate of Employment and Service Record duly signed under oath and sealed by the Human Resources Department and the General Manager (or his/her equivalent) h. Copy of the Job Description duly signed under oath and sealed by the Human Resources Department and the General Manager (or his/her equivalent) NOTE: For applicants working abroad, the required documents must be certified by the Philippine Overseas Labor Office near the place of work. 2. 3. As soon as applicant has ascertained (1) which registration without examination to apply for (as Psychologist, Psychometrician or both, or as Respiratory Therapist); (2) that he/she satisfies the qualification requirements; and (3) can satisfy all the documentary requirements within the time stated, the applicant is ready to proceed to submit his/her application online. 4. After receiving an acknowledgement through applicant’s email that the application for registration without examination has been submitted successfully together with an order form for payment, applicant must follow the steps hereunder: d. On the assigned date, applicant must go to the Customer Service Center of the nearest PRC office and secure one (1) P15 metered documentary stamp. Affix the documentary stamp on the space provided in the application form, sign it and indicate the date when the application form was accomplished. Applicant can then proceed to the cashier’s window for the payment of the application/processing fee (P900.00 for each application to be processed). e. Submit a copy of the official receipt (OR) evidencing payment together with the duly accomplished application form and documents to: 1. For Psychologist and Psychometrician – Window 12, Application Division at the Ground Floor of PRC Main Building 2. For Respiratory Therapist – PRB Secretariat Office, 3rd Floor of PRC Main Building 3. PRC Regional Offices Submit all required documents in a clear book with the confirmation number and official notice of submission from the PRB on the first page, a table of contents on the second, the printed application form on the third page, and the rest of the documents in subsequent pages arranged according to the list provided. The application processor will conduct an initial screening of the application documents and should inform the applicant of any deficiency at this time. Applicant should receive a claim stub after initial screening is done. a. After receipt by PRC of applicant’s documents, he/she should wait for official notification from PRC through his/her email account. Applicant is also advised to check the PRC website regularly to check whether the application has been approved or call tel. no. 3101018 to inquire about the status of application. I have read and fully understood the instructions and I fully agree with the terms and conditions governing the Professional Regulation Commission’s application for registration without examination.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Lady Ada Lovelace- First Computer Programmer Free Essay Example, 1750 words

According to the research findings, there have been numerous researchers and inventors in the history of mankind; however only a few have been able to influence humans even after hundred years of their published work. Lady Ada Lovelace is one of such remarkable people. Lady Ada Lovelace was born in 1815 in the house of a poet. Bellis stated that her mother was involved in the field of mathematics and contributed valuable work in the respective field. In those days, women usually acquired education at home; her mother was able to give her valuable knowledge about the field of mathematics. Due to the valuable foundation of her academic concepts, she was able to contribute valuable work in the field of computers and artificial intelligence. In 1834, Charles Babbage expressed his inclination towards making an analytical engine that would have the capability to act upon its foresight. Lady Ada was highly fascinated with his ideas and began work on the formulation of the analytical engine . In 1842, an Italian researcher and mathematician wrote a paper related to the analytical engine. We will write a custom essay sample on Lady Ada Lovelace- First Computer Programmer or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page Her vision revolved around the possibility of making the machine act upon symbols, rather than just numbers. She proposed that symbols should be interpreted on the basis of some rules and numbers should be able to denote entities rather than just figures. It is due to these contributions that computers have progressed to serve different needs of the humans, instead of only mathematical purposes.